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Describe briefly four common survey equipment or tools including their various uses. (b) Enumerate…

(a) Describe briefly four common survey equipment or tools including their various uses. (b) Enumerate the importance of farm surveying and planning in agriculture.

Explanation

2(a) Common Survey Equipment/Tools and their uses are: (i) Ranging Pole: It is made of wood or metal. It is varying lengths (e.g. 1.8m, 2.4m or 3.0m) and generally circular in section though some octagonal types are obtainable It is usually painted black, bright red and white to enable it to be seen from afar, has a pointed end and may be use for marking stations and straight lines.

(ii) Arrows or Pins: These are thin pointed steel wires about 30cm long With one end curved into a ring. A red cloth is normally attached to the ring so that it can be seen from afar. They are us during chaining for marking off chain lengths as measured and may be used for marking stations also.

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(iii) Gunter’s: Chain: This consists of a series of dumb- bell shaped links of steel wires joined together by three small rings. One Gunter’s chain is normally 20.13m (66ft) in length. It is divided into 100 links so that each link is 19.8cm or 7.92ins is used in taking short or detailed measurement of length and breadth. It has brass handles at either end. A link is the distance from the middle of the central ring to the middle of the next central ring.

(iv) Measuring Tape: It is usual made of linen or fine steel sheet of various types and lengths. It is usually marked on one side with metric units and VI other side in the imperial units. The tape is normally wound in a small case from where it is unwound for use. It is used for taking measurements of length, breadth and height.

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(v) Prismatic Compass: it is normally placed on a stand. It has a prism and also a compass card marked in degree half degrees, minutes and seconds, in a clockwise direction. It has a sighting slot and is used in taking bearings and measuring angular distances.

(vi) Offset Staff: This is a graduated rod 3m long. A hook may be fitted at the top for the purpose of pulling a chain through a hedge. It may also be used for taking short off-set measurements. Each telescopic link is 0.3m (30cm) in length.

(vii) Theodolite: This is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles or plane’ It consists of the tripod stand made of wood/light weight metal in solid/telescopic legs. The tripod stand forms the base of the instrument. It has a lower plate which contains the graduated horizontal circle. made of glass or brass. It has spirit level which is used to define the horizontal plane against which angles of elevation or depression are measured.

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(b) Importance of farm surveying and planning in agriculture are:

(i) to know the hectarage of the land.

(ii) Surveying exposes the gradient of the land

(iii) farm planning helps the farmer to make decisions on locations of various farm building structures.

(iv) It also helps in determining the amount of input .of labour, seeds, fertilizers and chemicals to be used in the farm.

(v) It enables farmers to make the best use of available resources in order to achieve maximum profitability

(vi) loans can be got with the best use of available resources in order to achieve maximum profitability.

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(vii) farm survey gives the owner of the land security.

(viii) It does not allow for wastage

(ix) It helpsto determine yield or productivity

(x) farm surveying planning can be usedas basis of feasibility studies

(a) Describe briefly four common survey equipment or tools including their various uses. (b) Enumerate the importance of farm surveying and planning in agriculture.

Explanation

2(a) Common Survey Equipment/Tools and their uses are: (i) Ranging Pole: It is made of wood or metal. It is varying lengths (e.g. 1.8m, 2.4m or 3.0m) and generally circular in section though some octagonal types are obtainable It is usually painted black, bright red and white to enable it to be seen from afar, has a pointed end and may be use for marking stations and straight lines.

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(ii) Arrows or Pins: These are thin pointed steel wires about 30cm long With one end curved into a ring. A red cloth is normally attached to the ring so that it can be seen from afar. They are us during chaining for marking off chain lengths as measured and may be used for marking stations also.

(iii) Gunter’s: Chain: This consists of a series of dumb- bell shaped links of steel wires joined together by three small rings. One Gunter’s chain is normally 20.13m (66ft) in length. It is divided into 100 links so that each link is 19.8cm or 7.92ins is used in taking short or detailed measurement of length and breadth. It has brass handles at either end. A link is the distance from the middle of the central ring to the middle of the next central ring.

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(iv) Measuring Tape: It is usual made of linen or fine steel sheet of various types and lengths. It is usually marked on one side with metric units and VI other side in the imperial units. The tape is normally wound in a small case from where it is unwound for use. It is used for taking measurements of length, breadth and height.

(v) Prismatic Compass: it is normally placed on a stand. It has a prism and also a compass card marked in degree half degrees, minutes and seconds, in a clockwise direction. It has a sighting slot and is used in taking bearings and measuring angular distances.

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(vi) Offset Staff: This is a graduated rod 3m long. A hook may be fitted at the top for the purpose of pulling a chain through a hedge. It may also be used for taking short off-set measurements. Each telescopic link is 0.3m (30cm) in length.

(vii) Theodolite: This is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles or plane’ It consists of the tripod stand made of wood/light weight metal in solid/telescopic legs. The tripod stand forms the base of the instrument. It has a lower plate which contains the graduated horizontal circle. made of glass or brass. It has spirit level which is used to define the horizontal plane against which angles of elevation or depression are measured.

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(b) Importance of farm surveying and planning in agriculture are:

(i) to know the hectarage of the land.

(ii) Surveying exposes the gradient of the land

(iii) farm planning helps the farmer to make decisions on locations of various farm building structures.

(iv) It also helps in determining the amount of input .of labour, seeds, fertilizers and chemicals to be used in the farm.

(v) It enables farmers to make the best use of available resources in order to achieve maximum profitability

(vi) loans can be got with the best use of available resources in order to achieve maximum profitability.

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(vii) farm survey gives the owner of the land security.

(viii) It does not allow for wastage

(ix) It helpsto determine yield or productivity

(x) farm surveying planning can be usedas basis of feasibility studies


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